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Old May 12, 2008   #16
Tom Wagner
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Since I am now at, or near, the location of my daughter's wedding, I have a few moments during the next few days to contact the Rick Tomato folks at Davis, California. I will ask if anyone has a handle on bi-colored breeding genes relating to dominance, etc.

I may look at their gene bank for details of which genes might be available that would make a good test for breeding.

I am not around my breeding notes now, so I will have to wing it with them.

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Old May 12, 2008   #17
stratcat1
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Thanks, Tom!

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Old May 13, 2008   #18
Tom Wagner
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I just off the phone will Roger Cheletat of the Tomato Resources Center here in Davis, California where I am staying at the moment. Unfortunately, he could only take enough time to return my call as he and his associates are busy with field trip preparations.

We talked in some detail about gene expression of (at), a recessive gene called (Apricot) which is noted for having yellow-pink flesh color. We also talked about gf, gs, and gr.

Apparently since they are curators of genes rather than breeders, the information we are seeking is not known offhand by Roger. It also seems that some of the genes I have been using have mutated since the phenotypes are not as the descriptors of those genes delineate.

Bi-colored fruits have been studied in the past, Roger states, but I will have to explore the database more completely before I talk with him again.

The high pigment genes are bouncing around in many of my creations, but I am too rusty right now to explain how I am using the enhanced expression for flesh colors. To give you some idea of the complexity of the subject see these links below.
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...gene carrying three tomato mutations that are in many respects isophenotypic to HP-1: high pigment-2 (hp-2), high pigment-2j (hp-2j) and dark green (dg). The entire coding region of the DDB1 gene was sequenced in an HP-1 mutant and its near-isogenic normal plant in the cv. Ailsa Craig background, and also in an HP-1w mutant and its isogenic normal plant in the GT breeding line background. Sequence analysis revealed a single A931-to-T931 base transversion in the coding sequence of the DDB1 gene in the HP-1 mutant plants. This transversion results in the substitution of the conserved asparagine at position 311 to a tyrosine residue. In the HP-1w mutant, on the other hand, a single G2392-to-A2392 transition was observed, resulting in the substitution of the conserved glutamic acid at position 798 to a lysine residue. The single nucleotide polymorphism that differentiates HP-1 mutant and normal plants in the cv. Ailsa Craig background was used to design a pyrosequencing genotyping system. Analysis of a resource F2 population segregating for the HP-1 mutation revealed a very strong linkage association between the DDB1 locus and the photomorphogenic response of the seedlings, measured as hypocotyl length (25<LOD score<26, R2=62.8%). These results strongly support the hypothesis that DDB1 is the gene encoding the HP-1 and HP-1w mutant phenotypes.
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Plants respond to light by an array of developmental responses referred to as photomorphogenesis. Several photomorphogenic mutants were described in tomato. Among these, plants carrying the monogenic recessive high pigment (hp-1, hp-1w, hp-2, hp-2 j, and hp-2dg) mutations are characterized by an exaggerated light responsiveness. These mutants display shorter hypocotyls and higher anthocyanin levels in their seedlings, and share overall darker pigmentation of leaves and fruits. The increased pigmentation of fruits of these mutants is due to significantly elevated levels of carotenoids, primarily lycopene, in the mature fruit. Because of their effect on lycopene content, hp mutations were introgressed into several commercial tomato cultivars, marketed as Lycopene Rich Tomatoes (LRT). Initially, these hp mutations were marked as lesions in structural genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. However, studies have demonstrated that: 1) hp-2, hp-2 j, and hp-2dg represent different mutations in the gene encoding the nuclear protein DEETIOLATED1 (DET1), a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis; and 2) hp-1 and hp-1w represent mutations of the gene encoding UV DAMAGED DNA BINDING protein 1 (DDB1), a protein interacting genetically and biochemically with DET1. The discovery of det1 and ddb1 mutants in the tomato has therefore created a conceptual link between photomorphogenesis and over-production of fruit phytonutrients. Indeed, metabolite profiling, carried on fruits harvested from hp-2dg mutant plants, show that this mutant is characterized by overproduction of many metabolites; several of which are known for their antioxidant or photoprotective activities. This metabolite overproduction is associated with up-regulation of many genes, as determined by transcriptional profiling of fruits obtained from hp-2dg mutant plants in comparison to their isogenic normal controls.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that manipulation of light signal transduction may be an effective approach towards improving the nutritional and functional quality of the tomato fruits

When I find the time I will try to explain the above research in common language.

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Old July 20, 2008   #19
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Couple months later.... anything else to add to this subject? Tom?
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Old December 27, 2008   #20
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It appears that hp-1 and hp-2 are mutations in two different transcription factors that each control expression of various light regulated genes. Transcription factors are regulatory genes often controlling a cascade of related genes in one or more biochemical pathways. The "high pigment" naturally occuring mutants hp-1 and hp-2 (and their various alleles) are characterized by an exagerated light responsiveness, darker green foliage, and increased fruit pigmentation. The increased fruit pigmentation is the result of increased accumulation or carotenoid pigments (primarily lycopene). Interestingly there is also an inceased level of production and accumulation of various other beneficial phytochemicals, including vitamins C and E. This led Levin et. al. (2003) to state that these characteristics make one or more of these hp genes/alleles attractive candidates for non-GE "functional" tomatoes. The term "functional foods" is now being used to describe foods with enhanced nutritional quality. A recent paper in Nature stirred some controversy reporting the production of GE tomatoes with transcription factors from Snapdragon that up-regulated anthocyanin production. Anthocyanin and carotene are common plant pigments, both now associated with various potential health benefits.
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Old December 28, 2008   #21
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Good discussion. hp also appears to be associated with very firm fruit which is slow to ripen. I'll have to look up that article in Nature.
frogsleap - I plan to try backcrossing to L. hirsutum. Have to see about plant vigor and seed viability, but I think some of the desirable traits might appear - pest and disease resistance. However, increased sucrose levels may be single gene recessive. Like to incorporate that, though.

Last edited by goodwin; December 28, 2008 at 04:35 PM. Reason: clarity
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Old January 6, 2009   #22
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Quote:
Originally Posted by frogsleap farm View Post
A recent paper in Nature stirred some controversy reporting the production of GE tomatoes with transcription factors from Snapdragon that up-regulated anthocyanin production. Anthocyanin and carotene are common plant pigments, both now associated with various potential health benefits.
I saw a news clip on this a couple months ago, and was very interested to see the various segregates, many of which were very compact dwarfs that appeared to be affected by wilts. They looked like the wilts I often see on black fruited plant foliage. The colours of the fruits were variations of brown black and purple black. I saved this on my DVD hard drive and must go back and look at it again!

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Old April 11, 2009   #23
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Mentor Tom, where are you? Any updates?

Carolyn, could you please e-mail me the 2004 heart/paste list?

By the way, I only got to grow 3 plants of the "KB Heart" cross and got this:

one RL red
one PL red
one RL PINK!

Any ideas on why these combos, plese feel free to discuss.

I am growing/pursuing the RL Pink & PL red this season.

Mark
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Old August 18, 2009   #24
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One BIG bump... still lots of questions unanswered...
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Old August 18, 2009   #25
Tom Wagner
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I was surprised to see how little I remember of what is still languishing on these threads. Sorry for being distracted.

I am smack dab in the middle of seed extraction and have little time to respond. I have several bulk progenies to photograph and describe. The genetics of selfing Glacier X Green Zebra is giving me too much to handle with all of the funny, but expected recombs happening.

I have had a lot of potato leaf, reg leaf F-2's that were used in furthering the diversity of tomatoes of hundreds of crosses. Just writing that down on seed papers is about all I can do now. Maybe I will find some down time and post on these subjects.
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Old March 7, 2010   #26
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Quote:
Originally Posted by carolyn137 View Post
Hilde, here's another perspective.

I applaud your efforts to do crosses as I do others, but most of the folks that I know pay little to no attention at all concerning tomato genes and dominance, recessiveness, except when using a PL for the maternal plant when the other parent is an RL, so one can tell if the cross took.

What most folks seem to do is to choose two varieties that have characteristics that they'd like to see combined in some way, into ultimately one offspring.

So that means saving seeds from thje initial F1 hybrid, planting out as many as you can from those F2 seeds, making selections from one or more plants whose fruits and performance please you, planting out the F3 seed, etc.

That is, they don't sit down and look at genes and try to predict what they might get based on the parents they've selected.

It's kind of like my foray into breeding daylilies when I'd go out in the AM and cross pretty by pretty. Or frangrant by fragrant.

Don't get me wong now, a knowledge of tomato genes , at least of the more common ones, is good to know, but there's so much more that isn't known, one example being the genes involved with gold/red bicolors.
Sounds like "just do it and see what happens" rather than trying to predict uncertainty.
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Old March 7, 2010   #27
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Here is a little something I put together for a cross I am working with. I left out the fact that there is also dwarf/determinant/indeterminant factors going on.

http://tomatoville.com/showthread.php?t=11700
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Old March 9, 2010   #28
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The original question in this post may have already been answered and I may have overlooked it. In the gene lists, dominant genes are designated by a capital letter for the first letter of the abbreviation for the gene and recessive genes are designated by a lower case letter for the first letter in the abbreviation. Good examples of dominant genes are the disease resistance genes such as Ve, I, I-2, I-3, Mi, Sw-5, Tm-2. Good examples of recessive genes are sp, t, y, j-2. I hope this helps.
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Old April 8, 2010   #29
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Tom, are you still with us???
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Old April 9, 2010   #30
Tom Wagner
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Mark asks where I am several times a year it seems...the latest ...
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Tom, are you still with us???
Yeah...mostly over on the potato forum..seems that more folks are more interested in my potato varieties and breeding work than with my tomatoes.

There are just too many tomato varieties out there and the interest in new lines from me would be rather redundant! I released quite a few tomato varieties and crosses in Europe last Fall but the wind went out of my sails when I came home to the states where we are over-run with varieties....and I lost some of my push to talk about tomatoes.

Not to say I don't still work with the breeding and selection.....but I had to start with new cooperators this year as last year's cooperators were overwhelmed with too many varieties.

I am struggling to find the time to transplant tomatoes in the greenhouse and work for a living full time. I try to transplant 50 to 72 varieties a day, and most of the time those varieties/crosses/segregates number from just a few to several hundred per line. On the potato sub forum I think I may have talked about potato seedling transplants as in my 502 hybrid plants of Skagit Valley Golds x bulk diploids for example.

I thought about putting together a web site about my tomatoes but I failed for the umpteenth time to get the follow through to put a site even to a single page.

I have thousands of pictures I took in Europe...many of my tomatoes grown there but I get this kind of message when I try to upload picture 5412...
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DSCN5412.JPG:
The Dimension limits for this filetype are 1584 x 3300. We were unable to resize your file so you will need to do so manually and upload it again. Your file is currently 3264 x 2448.
If I had the time I would write about the extreme vigor of a Sun Gold x Blue P-20 and the purple stems of the hybrid....or the riot of plant types of a complex cross of Anana Noir x Green Zebra x Vintage Wine x NC2cms35/10 x Gamblers x Sweet N Sour x WV700 x Blue P-20 but who would care?

Also...who would care to read about a cross of a pink and green striped crossed to a hybrid of Blue P-20 and Woolly Green Zebra...picking out the seedlings to replant that are showing woolliness, blue stems, and hoping for a 50% chance of those having vivid stripes? Who would want to know what I am looking for in that one in the F-2 generation? I have to worry if I can find homes for them locally for seed extraction and breeding purposes.
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